Shortly following trips to Davos during the World Economic Forum in late January, Erika Karp sat down with Juliet Scott-Croxford of Worth Media to compare notes on their experiences and most meaningful takeaways from the week. Below is a transcript of that conversation, which we captured via video.

Erika Karp, CEO Cornerstone Capital Group | Juliet Scott-Croxford, CEO Worth Meeting

 

JSC:  Hi everyone. I’m Juliet Scott-Croxford, CEO of Worth Media. And I’m excited to be joined by Erika Karp, CEO of Cornerstone Capital, to talk about our shared experience at Davos in the end of January.

EK:  I’m Erika Karp, the Founder and CEO of the Cornerstone Capital Group. As we think about investing for impact we’re here to talk about Davos, what happened at the World Economic Forum last week and some of the most interesting takeaways.

JSC:  What was your biggest takeaway from the event on based on what you attended and some of the conversations that you heard?

Systems Thinking

EK:  For me, the biggest takeaway is the extent to which we need more systems thinking if we’re going to meet these huge challenges. Because it seemed like there were a lot of events going on — whether it was about climate, whether it was about health or whether it was about technology and blockchain or women or  LGBTQ events  — each of these events touches on way more than it might seem.

JSC:  And, and how do we take action on creating big systems thinking around those types of challenges?

EK:  Well, it’s really hard. I think that that kind of thinking can’t just happen at the top. That is not just a high-level conversation. That conversation needs to go down to the grassroots level. And so I wonder … if everyone who needs to be in the room sometimes is in the room.

JSC:  Hmm. So just playing on that point a bit, I think there was 24% female attendance at Davos this year. Last year it was 23%. What were your takeaways around the sort of notion around diversity and inclusion?

EK:  By the way, that’s a big jump for Davos, because I know in many past years it’s been stuck at kind of 20% or even below. And that’s challenging. So the idea of women not just having more power but more influence is hugely important. And I think women’s voices, diverse voices are not being heard to the extent to which they need to be.

JSC:  I attended a lot of the sessions that were done at the Equality Lounge [hosted] by the Female Quotient and a big part of their focus was on UN Sustainable Development Goal 5, around closing the gender gap. What conversations did you hear around gender and diversity outside of perhaps one of those areas?

EK:  Unfortunately, very little. And here’s what I think we have to get to… people might talk about SDG 5 and women’s economic empowerment. But when you think of how you actually get there, you have to talk about all the other SDGs. So we think at Cornerstone in terms of the idea of access. Women will not be really empowered until we have access to water, to healthcare, to education, to broadband, to capital. And so that intersectionality, that systems thinking around diversity, I don’t think we’re there yet.

Capitalism and Sustainability

JSC:  The main sort of focal point for the event or the big theme was around better capitalism and sustainability. How encouraged or not were you by that kind of conversation and thinking?

EK: There was a lot of talk about stakeholder capitalism, what we’ve seen the Business Roundtable talking about. And I think that’s great, but it’s so much more than talk that we need to get it done. When we go back to those Sustainable Development Goals, that systems thinking, that’s what you really need to see. So we need data, we need accountability, we need measurability, we need intentionality — all the things that we talk about with impact investing. And if you think about it, any board of directors, you know, yes, they need to serve their shareholders. They need to serve their employees. They need to serve their customers. You can’t optimize profitability without doing all three. But the issue is, it has to be about long-term profitability. We have to stop [the impact of] externalities from not being accepted by the users of capital. We have to think about financial capital, but also human capital, natural capital. We have a long way to go, I think.

JSC:  Well, one of the key takeaways for me was that the business community is awake to the climate crisis. That was encouraging for me, whilst it’s possibly a little too late. I did feel like the conversation around that was baked into every conversation or session that I had. And perhaps more so outside of North America as well. I think there’s an interesting conversation coming out of a lot of the European businesses. I think that the key challenge is how do we take it beyond conversation and into real action. Seeing the letter that Larry Fink put out and, and some of the conversations around the Business Roundtable, what do you think the next steps are? How do we take that and. to your point, build that sort of systems thinking into —

EK:  Action? Well, one of the big next steps is to facilitate tangible information, data, decision-useful information. I think that kind of push for real information, real data accountability is the starting point. And so that’s one of the things that I take away from it. Because when you have real information, real data that data providers and index providers and ETFs and fund managers and ultimately investors can have, not flawed information all through that system, then I think we have a better start.

JSC:  And what about the sense of having a common language around how we’re describing this? So a common way to describe it, a common way to measure it, a common way to hold each other accountable to it. How important do you see that?

EK:  Hugely important and that leads on from what I talked about with regard to data. We don’t have a common language when it comes to the whole idea of sustainable investing. Cornerstone uses a very clear definition. We think sustainable investing is the systematic integration of material, environmental, social and governance factors into the investment process. That is sustainable investing. It’s not ideological, it’s not political, it’s not divisive. It is about pragmatism and enhanced analytics. It is a discipline. And that discipline in finance, I mean ultimately it’s just going to be called investing and investment research, but we’re not there yet. Sometimes you’ll hear people say ESG investing. There is no such thing as ESG investing. There’s ESG analysis. We have to bring this into the realm of finance, not ideology.

JSC:  And how important is partnerships and this notion of stakeholding when it comes to taking this to the next step?

EK:  It’s, it’s just critical. This goes exactly to what we’re talking about, with systems thinking and going from not just the top down but from the bottom up to have this interdisciplinary discussion about getting things done. Partnerships are a must-have if we go back to talking about achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, which, by the way, in and of themselves are not investible. So again, when we frame things at Cornerstone, we think about the idea of access, giving the world access to each of those SDGs, giving investors access to each of those SDGs. And that implies you’ve got to have partnerships.  SDG 17, right?

JSC:  Yeah, absolutely. And people like Greta [Thunberg], who I personally think is so essential to helping hold businesses and key influences accountable to make progress. What what were your thoughts on her speech?

EK:  Oh my God. The idea of, you know, this young person talking about what is blindingly obvious to almost the whole world, except certain administrations. I think it’s tremendous. I think she represents, you know, basically the whole world that’s not at Davos.

JSC:  Playing that forward to the point around inclusivity … she has such a loud voice, a voice that is so important to people that aren’t able to be at something like [Davos]. I just think her presence is so poignant.

The Davos Experience

JSC: So this was your first and my first Davos. I’m still processing it a bit ’cause there’s so many different layers and elements to it. It’s a place of many contradictions, and it has been and is under scrutiny. Having been there and come away, what are your sort of overall thoughts on the importance of it? The challenges with it?

EK:  You know, the biggest challenge is clearly the perception of eliteism, the few, the very few making decisions for everyone else. And so that’s a huge challenge now with regard to how Davos comes together.

For a number of years I worked on the Global Agenda Council which leads up to Davos — what should be included, what are the pivotal questions that we’re going to address at Davos? The question I have is whether the hard work done on the agenda councils and the work that becomes you know, very specific, [does that] get right into the Davos conversations? I’m not sure of that. So that’s something I think we have to be very thoughtful about, because I think that innovation and ideas come from everywhere. Are those [ideas] making their way into any decisions or actions that might be taken over that one week? I’m not sure.

JSC:  What were some of the most interesting sessions you attended?

EK:  Obviously the ones that I worked on! The Green Debate was about action. What I felt that was so interesting was the extent of the earnestness of that group, which really wants to get something done. The other [event] that I was involved with, which I’m really excited about is called the World Benchmarking Alliance, the WBA. And the reason I love this initiative is because it is really about a systems-based approach: Let’s look at the keystone companies in the global economy, those that potentially can have more impact than other companies by virtue of where they’re situated in the system. And let’s keep raising the bar for the industries.

JSC:  Fantastic. So you thought the WBA offers a solution to integrate this systems-based analysis?

EK:  From what I can see. It’s relatively new initiative. But yes, it is showing us which companies can be most powerful in driving everything forward. And I should say there is no perfect company. You know, every company has challenges, whether it’s upstream or downstream, whether it’s a technology company, consumer company — every company has challenges. But if the WBA can really identify what exactly those keystone companies are doing, what do they touch and how can they be most powerful, I think that’s terrific.

JSC:  What do you think the best way of integrating that into future Davos events, to your point and taking it to the grassroots? So it can’t just sit with this sort of small group of incredibly influential people. How much does the World Economic Forum take a lead in ensuring that happens?

EK:  I think the WEF really could take the lead. I’ll give you an example as it relates to these keystone companies, or companies that are not keystone companies but sit in industries that have an outsized impact on what’s going on. One of the things that I observed — or didn’t observe — was the extent to which there’s real entrepreneurship, real disruption inside the companies that are part of the WEF. I think a lot of companies have forgotten how to take risk. They have forgotten how to innovate. And I think that’s unfortunate, especially, I would argue, since some of the agenda councils, which over the past decade have come up with interesting solutions, innovative, entrepreneurial solutions. I don’t know that we’re seeing [such solutions] to the extent that we should.

JSC:  I think that’s an interesting point. I was surprised that there were quite a lot of young people at the event, more so than I expected, but also more representation from tech companies and data companies and software companies. And I’m surprised that they haven’t taken more of a lead on [creating] more of a systems-based universal way of an analyzing and assessing progress in some of these areas.

EK:  Did you feel, ’cause I did a little bit, did you feel that there was more a sense of fear of new technologies, the negative impact of new technologies by one generation than there was by the other? It felt to me like there was a little bit of a focus on the scary stuff.

JSC:  Yeah. I think you’re right. And I think, you know, Facebook’s been in the headlines a lot, so I think that there definitely is this sense of, yeah, how much do we embrace these platforms for good? I think that is a challenge both for those companies and for people, but there is this wealth of knowledge and expertise. Let’s apply it in these areas that we need to apply it.

JSC: Are there other conversations or interesting people that you met that have kind of stuck with you a few days later?

EK:  There was one particularly interesting woman I spoke to from a health research organization. One of the things she said that just really struck me is that, you know, we can talk about systemic change as much as we want. But when it comes to healthcare and the intersection of healthcare and the technologies we need, she said the funding picture is so off, you know, without government funding of basic research. She says we can talk all we want, but it’s not enough.

JSC:  Why do you think that is? Why, what is driving that lack of investment or capital in the area?

EK:  I think it does have to do with the short-termism, broadly, whether it’s in the private sector or the public sector. Some in the foundation world are doing wonderful work, but it’s a drop in the bucket compared to what we need. If the foundations are giving a kind of first loss capital [to attract the] private sector that’s great. But again, when it comes to basic research, it’s a drop in the bucket. And then our conversation went on to infrastructure spending and education spending and you know, the things that so need to come first. But it was that healthcare discussion that reminded me this is going to take everyone.

The Role of the Sustainable Development Goals

JSC:  Yeah. And, and how integral do you think the Sustainable Development Goals [SDGs] were to the entire conversation? Cause that, that was the other thing I noticed. They were very prominent in certain places, but in other places actually weren’t the lead focus. What can we do to use them as a way to align all of these stakeholders and companies around a way forward?

EK:  I was actually surprised that they were included in lots of places because I was expecting nothing. So I was pleased to see the SDGs around and in their own little building that was [colorful]. You know, the fact that the SDGs have branded themselves as eye candy is beautiful — whatever it takes. I wouldn’t call it prominence, but it was clearly there.

I think one of the problems we have, actually, is if companies kind of hang their hats on achieving SDG 5 or whatever. I think that’s really problematic because if you really try to go after one (and we talked about this before), you’re not going to get really much done. Yeah. So I think this was the WEF kind of tiptoeing into the SDGs.

JSC:  Yeah, I agree. I’d really love this sense of having a shared set of goals and I do think that’s a really powerful way of bringing different stakeholders together around a common issue and some of the biggest issues that we’re faced with. I think you just, you kind of want to see more of it. And I sense there have been quite a lot of laggards when it comes to adopting these or taking them seriously or thinking actually this is a good way to do it.

EK:  I mean with all due respect to the WEF, it’s astonishing that this is the first time that they’ve really tackled climate.

JSC:  Yes. And it is sort of slightly contradictory in the fact that the backdrop is the, you know, the mountains and the temperature was quite warm. Yes, there’s snow on the ground, but it, I sort of felt like it was almost quite stark in that the conversation was around climate crisis finally, and we were in the backdrop that we were in.

EK:  I put that aside to some degree because had it been snowing and freezing, then somebody would say, ‘Oh look, no climate change.’ I mean, you know this is about volatility, not about any particular day. So it didn’t bother me that much. It was convenient. Walking around was a little easier than it would have been. But you know, getting between all those black cars…

JSC:  I was going to say, it takes 20 minutes to walk end to end on the promenade and I would far rather walk. I was surprised at how much traffic there was and they weren’t, I don’t think they were electric.

EK:  Well, actually I have a picture of Prince Charles arriving in a fully electric vehicle. Yes. I think, I don’t know where that was published, but we’ve got that right.

JSC:  There’s definitely more that they could do there, I think.

EK:  I think there’s a little more they can do. Yeah.

JSC:  So you saw Prince Charles, who else did he see that kind of made you [perk up].

EK:  You know, no one, not really. Maybe I was looking down or doing my work. But I did see some of my favorite people. Nigel Topping, you know, I don’t know if everyone knows Nigel, but he’s amazing. A few other people that I’ve known for a long time that in my view are really the leaders, like Steve Waygood from Aviva. I don’t know if people know Steve, but yeah, he’s one of the leaders. So it was really nice to see those serious people.

Next Year at Davos?

JSC:  What would you, a year from now, thinking about Davos next year, what change would you like to see?

EK:  I would love for Davos to just take up the issue of entrepreneurship. You know, we know that in a global economy, impact comes from entrepreneurship, new companies revitalizing economic growth. You know, the fact that we have the world’s monetary authorities driving the stock market is not okay, right? Real economic growth comes from entrepreneurship. And I don’t know that there’s been a Davos that’s really taken that up.

JSC: And so how would you, how would you do that?

EK: I’d like to see the conversation truly be a catalyst for growth. Focus on the idea of entrepreneurship, in fact, impact entrepreneurship. That’s where growth comes. That’s where new companies come from. Why don’t we have, you know, a discussion about great companies that know how to disrupt themselves and innovate from inside. And then of course, the outside companies, the innovators, the disruptors that are outside. I think it has to be about entrepreneurship because ultimately that’s how we’re going to face the big challenges of the world.

JSC: So watch this space and we’ll work on impact entrepreneurship as a topic between now and next year. Thank you.

EK: Thank you.

 

As new members of the World Benchmarking Alliance, we have been delving into their work to understand how WBA benchmarks corporate performance in terms of their contribution to the UN Sustainable Development Goals.

WBA’s approach aligns closely with Cornerstone’s thinking: they recognize that transformational, systems-based change across key sectors and issues is critical to achieve a regenerative and inclusive global economy. Recognizing that the private sector has a tremendous role to play in bringing about such change, and that clear and consistent measurements of progress are essential to the effort, WBA is creating benchmarks or indices for key focus areas:

Below we offer highlights from WBA’s recently released assessment of the automotive industry, part of its climate and energy benchmark.

Measuring the world’s 25 most influential auto manufacturers

Given the transport industry is responsible for 15% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions, automotive companies play a vital role in decarbonizing our economy. To measure their progress toward reaching the Paris Agreement goal of limiting global warming to well below 2°C, WBA analyzed the world’s leading automotive companies to determine if they can meet that target. We have summarized their key findings below.

Destination Decarbonization: Stuck in the Slow Lane

Companies are stalling in the low-carbon transition. Of the 25 companies, only Groupe PSA, Ford, Renault, and Mazda have established fleet targets that are fully aligned with the pathway required for the low-carbon transition, with only Mazda and Nissan setting long-term targets that reach as far as 2050.  In addition to beefing up target emissions reductions, companies need to map out a clear strategic plan to achieve those targets. Groupe PSA is the only one of the 25 companies assessed that has embedded reduction targets into a publicly available low-carbon transition plan.

Driving with the Brakes On

A company’s investment in new battery technologies and electrification is a strong indication of its commitment to decarbonization. Some companies are making progress in boosting their low-carbon vehicle sales. BAIC, for example, boosted its share of low-carbon vehicle sales from less than 1% of total annual sales in 2013 to 7% in 2017. Likewise, BMW grew its low-carbon vehicle sales from less than 1% in 2012 to nearly 6% in 2018.

However, for 16 of the companies assessed, low-carbon vehicles accounted for less than 1% of sales. Several of these laggards have, encouragingly, made quantifiable commitments to rapidly increase their sales to transition to a low-carbon economy.

Sales: Customers Taking the Road Most Travelled

Though the auto sector is renowned for its high-profile marketing campaigns, less than half of the companies benchmarked show noticeable efforts to market low-carbon vehicles as a more favorable option. According to the WBA, there remains significant room for improvement from automotive companies to shift consumers towards low-carbon vehicles to help decarbonize the automotive industry.

Of the 25 companies, Tesla plays a strong role in shifting the passenger vehicle market toward electric vehicles by actively engaging consumers, increasing the number of showrooms, and creating unique customer experiences. BMW and Groupe PSA also actively promote their electric vehicles and encourageconsumer uptake. Efforts to shift the consumer mindset would require automotive companies to actively promote low-carbon models across multiple sales regions through a variety of methods.

Revving up Public Commitments to Climate Policy

There is an industry-wide reluctance for automotive companies to publicly commit to a positive, transparent and proactive approach to climate policy. None of the companies assessed show leadership in engaging with trade associations or regulatory bodies to help mitigate climate change. Nor does the industry as whole systematically safeguard against influencing climate-related regulations in a negative way, directly or indirectly, in consultations with regulators.

Though all of the companies – with the exception of Tesla – show a level of engagement with a trade association or regulatory body, none have a publicly available engagement plan, which is widely considered a best practice. That said, Ford, Groupe PSA, General Motors and Renault have established more defined positions relating to “climate-friendly” policies and what actions to take if an affiliated trade association has climate-negative positions.

Driving Change: The Future of Mobility

To better prepare for a low-carbon economy and remain profitable, auto manufacturers need to identify new business opportunities that move away from traditional passenger vehicle ownership. While automotive companies like Tata Motors, Tesla, BAIC, Honda, Nissan, and Toyota are exploring alternative business activities, they are far from scaling up operations: most companies do not offer a scope of operation, a sense of market share or profitability, and lack expansion plans with a defined timeline. This suggests that these activities may not have been given sufficient consideration in terms of the broader business strategy. To facilitate the transition to a low-carbon economy and help achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement, auto manufacturers could further demonstrate action towards diversifying their business models.

Conclusion

Car companies have a responsibility to current and future generations to change the high-emission mobility culture. Change can only occur if manufacturers proactively increase investments in and marketing of low-carbon vehicles, engage with policymakers on low-carbon solutions, and seek out new business opportunities.

Most companies have a low-carbon vehicle, but there is insufficient investment in this market. There also needs to be a more positive and proactive approach for companies to market low-carbon vehicles to consumers. As a whole, the industry needs to work with trade associations and react to climate policy. In sum, the WBA’s report illustrates that the 25 auto manufacturers are not on track to meet the goal set by the Paris Agreement.

For the full assessment please visit https://climate.worldbenchmarkingalliance.org/

The economic model of our current era is linear. We take resources from nature, make them into a product and then throw the item away when we’re done with it. The result? Overflowing landfills, trash-filled waterways and, too often, toxic waste. This rampant waste of resources poses an existential threat to the world as we know it.

What is the way forward? The circular economy. A circular economy uses as few resources as possible in product creation; keeps resources in circulation for as long as possible, extracting the maximum value from them while in use; then recovers and regenerates products and their components at the end of their service life. Embracing circular economy principles is perhaps the most essential initiative we can undertake as a global society.

In our report Intentional Design: Embracing the Circular Economy, we look across a range of sectors to identify critical resource issues and identify examples of companies that are adopting circular economy practices into their supply chain management. In many cases, companies are increasing their efficiency, reducing waste, and saving money through their investments in the relevant processes and technologies. The transition to a circular economy is also spurring new business models and collaboration across supply chains.

For investors, forward-thinking asset managers are increasingly incorporating circular economy considerations into their investment processes; “pure play” circular economy investment vehicles, though rare, do exist. The report highlights several existing investments that we consider under the circular economy umbrella. In our view, investing in the circular economy is poised to become a central theme in sustainable and impact investing.

Download Intentional Design.

Cornerstone has just released two reports addressing the impacts of climate change. Our report No Place to Hide? Climate Change and Systemic Financial Risk demystifies recent academic studies on the risk to global financial assets from various climate change scenarios. The conclusion: Without urgent investment to scale climate solutions, global financial assets face losses of $2-24 trillion, or 2-17%, depending on the pace and intensity of further global warming. The more extreme scenarios would affect entire portfolios as the global economy faces severe losses.

In other words — unless investment dollars are deployed at scale to limit further warming — there’s no place to hide.

There is still time to act, however, as we explain in Scaling Climate Action: Aligning Investments to Sustainable Development Goal 13. Our report provides a straightforward overview of the causes and most significant impacts of climate change. We then apply Cornerstone’s Access Impact FrameworkTM, identifying relevant “access themes” that offer tangible investment ideas. Those themes are:

Our report relays the key connections of each theme to SDG 13 and highlights existing investment funds that address our themes. An overview of opportunities, by asset class, is provided.

Gender lens investment approaches have expanded in recent years. All asset classes have seen a tremendous increase in the number of funds and assets under management since 2014. Fund strategies range from empowering women and funding women-run businesses to reducing gender violence and poverty for women and children.

At the same time, investors have also been seeking ways in align their activities in support of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Cornerstone Capital Group has contributed to this effort by introducing the Access Impact FrameworkTM, which illustrates the alignment of investment strategies to each of the SDGs. We identified the concept of access — the ability of individuals and societies to achieve desired social, economic and environmental outcomes — as a key common denominator of the SDGs and identified 11 “access themes” that translate the SDGs into investable opportunities.

SDG 5 is “Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.” For investments to have an impact related to achieving gender equality and empowering women and girls, investors do not have to invest solely in gender lens funds. Our approach to gender lens investing incorporates traditional gender lens themes with an analysis of the access themes that align most closely to SDG 5.

In this report we discuss each of the access themes that underpin SDG 5 in some depth. We also offer examples of investment vehicles that bolster access to these themes for women, their families and communities. Download the full report here.

SDG 17: Partnerships for the Goals recognizes the need to implement and revitalize global partnerships to support sustainable development. Robust partnerships between regulators, policymakers and the private sector are necessary to achieve each of the SDGs. Regulators, who operate under a legal mandate to set and enforce rules for market compliance, must balance such priorities as market growth, transparency, competition, stability, and safety to minimize turbulence and risk, while enabling needed advancements.1 Policymakers must coordinate efforts to create logical and coherent frameworks for macroeconomic stability, and to mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources to support the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals in all countries, in particular developing countries. Examples of synergies between SDG 17 and other goals are highlighted below.

Learn More About Investing in Partnerships for the Goals

Invest in Access to Financial Services

Widespread access to financing options is dependent on active coordination and partnership between local financial services institutions, financial technologies, and/or national and global economic entities. Indeed, the health and future of the entire financial services system is dependent on transparent, accountable, and collaborative institutions working together on behalf of the world’s poorest and most vulnerable people. Without the kind of robust partnerships imagined in SDG 17: Partnerships for the Goals, there will be little hope of achieving any of the other SDGs and or of making low-cost, quality financial services accessible.2

Innovation can spur growth and competition in financial markets and provide new and better options for customers.3 But without careful, balanced regulation, it can also present serious risks to consumers. Examples from around the world show that regulators can encourage
innovation in a manner that promotes a safe and efficient marketplace. The partnership between regulators, policymakers and the private sector is necessary to achieve access to financial services for all individuals. Such partnerships are especially important for rural and low-income populations to gain access to financial and other vital services via mobile and other technologies.4

Invest in Access to Telecommunication Systems

The rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT) based services and systems offers the possibility for the needed
transformation of the world economy and illustrates the truly interconnected nature of global development. ICT will play a special role in today’s low-income and lower-middle-income countries, and with poor and moderate-income families everywhere. Mobile phones have already allowed for dramatic breakthroughs in e-finance, such as mobile payments and credit, along with e-health, overcoming long-standing gaps in access to facilities such as bank branches and clinics. However, while private sector applications of ICT have soared, the need for regulation and crossborder rulemaking has also soared. Robust partnerships among global and regional institutions are imperative to ensure equal access to the essential technology and communications systems across the globe.5

Learn More About Investing in Partnerships for the Goals

SDG 17: References

1 https://www.pewtrusts.org/research-and-analysis/reports/2018/08/02/how-can-regulators-promote-financial-innovation-while-also-protecting-consumers
2 http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTFINFORALL/Resources/4099583-1194373512632/FFA_ch04.pdf pages 143-144
3 https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/noslack_chapter.pdf
4 https://www.pewtrusts.org/research-and-analysis/reports/2018/08/02/how-can-regulators-promote-financial-innovation-while-also-protecting-consumers
5 http://unsdsn.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/ICTSDG_InterimReport_Web.pdf pages 3-5

SDG 16: Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions highlights the role of governments and institutions in promoting peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, providing access to justice for all, and building effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels. To achieve the SDGs, governments and private institutions must be held accountable. Corruption, crime, bribery, and any number of unacceptable behaviors that are rampant in countries around the world must be addressed and ultimately eradicated. Moreover, violence against marginalized groups – whether on the basis of religion, geography, class, race, ethnicity or other factors – must be stopped. The realization of peace and justice and access to such things as housing, education, healthcare, food and nutrition requires strong institutions and governments that are held accountable for putting the needs of their people above the interests of their leaders.

Progress toward SDG 16 underpins all of the other SDGs. Peace, justice and strong institutions can facilitate better use of human capital and financial resources, which can result in attracting more investment capital and spurring economic growth in a country or a community. The synergies between SDG 16 and other goals are highlighted below.

Learn More About Investing in Solutions for Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions

Invest in Access to Fair Treatment and Equal Opportunity

The World Bank Group considers corruption a major challenge to ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest people in developing countries. Corruption, a major barrier to fair treatment, has a huge impact on the poor and vulnerable, increasing costs and reducing access to services, including health, education and justice. Corruption impedes investment, with consequent effects on social and economic stability, growth and jobs. Elimination of corruption and unfair practices will lead to more efficient use of human and financial resources, resulting in more investment capital and ultimately better economic growth.1

Much of the world’s costliest forms of corruption could not happen without institutions in wealthy nations: the private sector firms that give large bribes, the financial institutions that accept corrupt proceeds, and the lawyers and accountants who facilitate corrupt transactions.2 To ensure fair treatment and equal opportunity, corporations must commit to and be held accountable to fair and just practices and have good corporate governance practices in place. Moreover, civil society institutions must be supported and allowed to thrive so that they can advocate for the rights of marginalized people and hold governments accountable. Finally, government institutions – including elected officials and bureaucrats – must abide by the laws of their nations, and enact new laws if their laws are fundamentally unjust, if we are to realize a true vision of world with equal opportunity and fair treatment for all.3

Invest in Access to Adequate Housing and Living Conditions

Inadequate housing affects millions of people in urban areas as well as rural areas. A chronic lack of adequate housing is one of the major challenges of urbanization as people migrate from rural areas to cities. Densely populated urban areas that experience crowding, rundown housing, poverty and social disorganization experience greater violence and instability. Reducing the rate of violence against women, people with disabilities, and poor people, and ridding the world of the scourge of human trafficking, will require a fundamental redesign of how communities are organized, the conditions in which they live, and ultimately, their access to resources. This kind of transformation in how people live will require legitimate and effective governments and investment that focus on the well-being of people and communities.4

Learn More About Investing in Solutions for Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions

SDG 16: References

1 The World Bank, Combating Corruption, 2018
2 Ibid
3 United Nations and the Rule of Law: Equality and Non-discrimination
4 Habitat for Humanity, Adequate housing included in the Sustainable Development Goals, 2015.

SDG 15 aims to ensure and enhance the health of earth’s terrestrial ecosystems by encouraging sustainable land use and land protection. The past decades have seen a rise in challenges to this goal in the form of global deforestation and the loss of biodiversity. A deteriorating environment undermines the livelihoods of millions of people who no longer benefit from reliable sources of food, water and countless other services provided by healthy ecosystems. Fortunately, progress can be made through smarter development planning and reducing practices that pollute air and water.

SDG 15 is further refined by targets that can be more readily translated into actions. These targets highlight the interconnected nature of the goals: For example, strategies that address SDG 15 also support SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation) and SDG 7 (Affordable and Clean Energy).

Below are a series of synergies that can come from providing access to products, services and systems that address Life on Land.

Invest in Access to Clean Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

Freshwater ecosystems are undergoing some of the highest rates of biodiversity loss of all biomes, and are home to the highest number of species threatened by extinction.1 The chief threat is growing water contamination by humans in the form of excessive nutrients, sediments, chemicals,2 and more recently, microplastics.3 This is especially a problem in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, where water pollution has been getting worse over the past three decades.4 All of these pollutants have the ability to harm or kill the organisms that ingest them.5 To preserve the incredible biodiversity that freshwater supports, access to clean water for terrestrial life must be ensured, and these trends must be reversed.

Learn More About Investing in Solutions for Life on Land

Invest in Access to Clean Air

Land ecosystems suffer a range of impacts from poor air quality. Sulphur, nitrogen, and ozone emissions are the main culprits, damaging plant leaves and contributing to the acidification of surface water and soils when it falls to the ground as acid rain.6, 7 Air pollution also cause eutrophication- the process by which too many nutrients, such as nitrogen, accumulate in water bodies, leading to unnatural algae growth and a depletion of oxygen and light for other species.8 Humans are the main contributors to the excessive levels of these pollutants, so rich opportunities exist to encourage practices that translate to cleaner air for life on land to thrive.

Invest in Access to Adequate Housing & Living Conditions

As the global population grows, so will the need for new housing. This is especially true for cities, which are expanding in area at twice the rate of urban population growth.9 This trend threatens to degrade habitats and accelerate the loss of biomass as more land is developed.10 Beyond cities, rural residential development has been linked to decreases in wildlife, landscape health, and water quality as forests are fragmented and as runoff from contaminants such as fertilizer and pesticides increases.11 Poor-quality housing conditions may also lead to habitat degradation when there are no systems in place to handle refuse responsibly.12 The worst of these consequences can be avoided, however, with access to sustainable, adequate, ecologically conscious housing, with a focus on density to reduce space requirements.13

Learn More About Investing in Solutions for Life on Land

SDG 15: References

1 https://www.cbd.int/gbo/gbo4/gbo4-water-en.pdf
2 Freshwater biodiversity conservation: recent progress and future challenges. By: Strayer, David L.; Dudgeon, David. JOURNAL OF THE NORTH AMERICAN BENTHOLOGICAL SOCIETY Volume: 29 Issue: 1 Pages: 344-358 MAR 2010
3 Microplastics in freshwater systems: A review of the emerging threats, identification of knowledge gaps and prioritisation of research needs. 2015. Water Research. 75: 63-82. By:Eerkes-Medrano, D (Eerkes-Medrano, Dafne)[ 1 ] ; Thompson, RC (Thompson, Richard C.)[ 2 ] ; Aldridge, DC (Aldridge, David C.)[ 1 ]
4 World Water Development Report 2018. UN Water
5 Freshwater biodiversity conservation: recent progress and future challenges. By: Strayer, David L.; Dudgeon, David. JOURNAL OF THE NORTH AMERICAN BENTHOLOGICAL SOCIETY Volume: 29 Issue: 1 Pages: 344-358 MAR 2010.
6 https://www.fs.fed.us/nrs/pubs/jrnl/2015/nrs_2015_nowak_001.pdf.
7 Effects of Air Pollution on Ecosystems and Biological Diversity in the Eastern United States Gary M. Lovett, Timothy H. Tear, David C. Evers, Stuart E.G. Findlay, B. Jack Cosby, Judy K. Dunscomb, Charles T. Driscoll,and Kathleen C. Weathers. 2009. The Year in Ecology and Conservation Biology.
8 http://www.unece.org/environmental-policy/conventions/envlrtapwelcome/cross-sectoral-linkages/air-pollution-ecosystems-and-biodiversity.html.
9 Angel, S., J. Parent, D.L. Civco, A. Blei and D. Potere (2011). The dimensions of global urban expansion: Estimates and projections for all countries, 2000-2050. Progress in Planning Vol. 75, pp. 53-107
10 Seto, K., B. Guneralp and L.R. Hutyra (2012). Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools. PNAS Vol. 109, no. 40, pp. 16083-16088.
11 Private Forests, Public Benefits: Increased Housing Density and Other Pressures on Private Forest Contributions. 2009.
Susan M. Stein, Ronald E. McRoberts, Lisa G. Mahal, Mary A. Carr, Ralph J. Alig, Sara J. Comas, David M. Theobald, and Amanda Cundiff
12 The Challenge of Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements. Revised 2010. UN Habitat
13 Angel, S., J. Parent, D.L. Civco, A. Blei and D. Potere (2011). The dimensions of global urban expansion: Estimates and projections for all countries, 2000-2050. Progress in Planning Vol. 75, pp. 53-107.

SDG 14: Life Below Water focuses on the critical role played by oceans, along with coastal and marine resources, in contributing to human well-being as well as economic opportunity. The oceans provide food for the world’s growing population, and our rainwater and drinking water are ultimately provided and regulated by the sea. However, ocean health and marine life are threatened by overfishing, pollution and acidification. SDG 14 is further refined by targets that can be more readily translated into actions. These targets highlight the interconnected nature of the goals: for example, strategies to support Life Below Water are intertwined with strategies that support SDG 3 (Good Health and Well Being), SDG 10 (Reduced Inequalities), and SDG 8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth) – all while tackling climate change and working to preserve our oceans and forests. Below are a series of synergies that can come from providing access to products, services and systems that address Life Below Water.

Invest in Access to Sustainable Sources of Food and Nutrition

More than 3 billion people depend on the oceans as their primary source of protein1 making oceans the world’s largest protein source. Fish accounts for 17% of the global population’s intake of animal protein.2 Sustainable fishing practices, including responsible fisheries and aquaculture, offer opportunities to reduce hunger and improve nutrition. 3 According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, aquaculture is the fastest-growing food sector and has the potential to produce the fish needed to help meet the demands of a growing population.4 The FAO forecasts that almost three-quarters of the growth in demand for fish between 2017 and 2026 will come from Asian countries with rapidly growing populations. 5 The global share of marine fish stocks that are within biologically sustainable levels declined from 90% in 1974 to 69% in 2013.6 Marine protected areas need to be effectively managed and well-resourced, and regulations need to be put in place to reduce overfishing.7 As of January 2018, just 16% (or approximately 22 million square kilometers) of the marine waters under national jurisdiction—i.e., 0 to 200 nautical miles from shore—were protected.8

Learn More About Investing in Solutions for Life Below Water

Invest in Access to CleanWater, Sanitation and Hygiene

Our rainwater and drinking water are ultimately provided and regulated by the sea.9 Approximately 70% of Earth’s surface is covered in ocean water. When water at the ocean’s surface is heated by the sun it gains energy. With enough energy, the molecules of liquid water change into water vapor and move into the air. This process is called evaporation. 10 Rising temperatures will intensify the earth’s water cycle, increasing evaporation. Increased evaporation will result in more storms, but also contribute to drying over some land areas. As a result, storm-affected areas are likely to experience increases in precipitation and increased risk of flooding, while areas located far away from storm tracks are likely to experience less precipitation and increased risk of drought. 11

Learn More About Investing in Solutions for Life Below Water

SDG 14: References

1 https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/oceans/
2 http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/231522/icode/
3 http://www.fao.org/sustainable-development-goals/overview/fao-and-the-post-2015-development-agenda/fisheries-aquaculture-oceans-seas/en/
4 http://www.fao.org/sustainable-development-goals/goals/goal-14/en/
5 https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/agriculture-and-food/oecd-fao-agricultural-outlook-2017-2026_agr_outlook-2017-en
6 https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg14
7 https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/oceans/
8 https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/report/2018/overview/
9 https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/oceans/
10 https://www.acaedu.net/cms/lib3/TX01001550/Centricity/Domain/389/5.8B%20The%20Sun%20and%20Water%20Cycle.pdf
11 https://pmm.nasa.gov/resources/faq/how-does-climate-change-affect-precipitation

 

UN Sustainable Development Goal 13: Climate Action highlights the societal imperative to take urgent action to combat climate change and its devastating impacts through policy, awareness-raising, and adaptation and mitigation strategies. The effects of climate change can be seen on every continent. Weather patterns are changing, sea levels are rising, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are now at their highest levels in history. Without action, the world’s average surface temperature is likely to surpass 3°C this century. Climate change is disrupting national economies and individual lives, with the poorest and most vulnerable people suffering the most. SDG 13 is further refined by targets that can be more readily translated into actions. These targets highlight the interconnected nature of the goals: For example, strategies to tackle Climate Action are intertwined with those that address SDG 7 (Affordable and Clean Energy) and SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-Being). Below are a series of synergies that can come from providing access to products, services and systems that address Climate Action.

Invest in Access to Safe, Affordable and Sustainable Transportation

By 2030, 1.2 billion cars will be on the road globally, and annual passenger traffic will increase by 50% over 2015 levels.1 These trends are expected to raise greenhouse gas contributions from the transport sector, which already constitutes 18% of all human-made
emissions.2 At the same time, emissions from freight and shipping are growing even more rapidly than those from personal transportation, posing another urgent challenge for climate mitigation.3 Transport systems are also increasingly vulnerable to climate change impacts; increases in heavy precipitation events will affect road and bridge infrastructure,4 and ports are at risk to rising seas and extreme weather. 5Yet access to mobility and transportation translates into economic growth and expands access to jobs and social opportunities.6 As people worldwide seek more mobility, access to sustainable transport options will be critical to achieving SDG 13: Climate Action.

Learn More About Investing in Climate Action

Invest in Access to Sustainable Sources of Food and Nutrition

A growing population and changing dietary needs equate to a higher global demand for food. The world will need to produce upwards of 70% more food by 2050 to feed an estimated 9 billion people.7 However, the effects of climate change are accelerating the disruption of agricultural systems, especially in regions where levels of hunger are already high,8 offsetting progress in food access as developing economies grow.9 Measures of hunger have increased since 2014, and experts attribute this in part to climate change impacts.10 At the same time, food systems will need to become more sustainable, as agriculture is currently a major source of GHG emissions.11 Solutions will need to help increase and ensure access to food with an emphasis on sustainable production in the
future.

Invest in Access to Education

Education plays an important role in both climate change mitigation and adaptation. Higher levels of education translate to an increased understanding and awareness of the immediate threats of climate change, resulting in a greater likelihood for advocacy on associated issues.12 Furthermore, women who attain higher levels of education have fewer children, thereby curbing emissions from population growth and mitigating future climate change.13 The countries that will be hardest hit by climate change are also home to large child populations who will need to adapt to these impacts.14 In this case, increased access to education helps current and future decisionmakers and workers take successful actions to adapt personally and collectively.15

Learn More About Investing in Climate Action

Invest in Access to Affordable, Sustainable and Modern Energy

Globally, more people have access to electricity than ever before.16 However, 13% of the global population still lacks access to electricity.17 Meanwhile, energy production is the dominant contributor to climate change, accounting for around 60% of total global emissions.18 Increasing access to sustainable forms of energy will be critical to reducing future emissions.19 In particular, replacing the wood, coal, and charcoal fuels that 3 billion people currently rely on for cooking with efficient cookstoves has been identified as a priority goal.20

Invest in Access to Clean Air

Clean air and SDG 13: Climate Action are directly related. Black carbon is a major output of vehicles, coal-based power plants, and other fossil-fuel burning sources. Not only is black carbon a major driver of climate change, it is also an air pollutant with serious public health consequences.21 Organizations such as the World Health Organization have conducted research showing that 91% of the world’s population lives in places where air quality exceeds guidelines for acceptable particulate matter, which contributes to 4.2 million deaths yearly.22 Providing access to clean air addresses these health issues and reduces greenhouse gas emissions simultaneously.

Learn More About Investing in Climate Action

SDG 13: References

1 Global Mobility Report, 2017, Sustainability for All Initiative;
2 Ibid;
3 Decarbonizing Transport for a Sustainable Future: Conference Proceedings, Fifth EU-US Transport Research Symposium. National Academy of Sciences. 2017;
4 Fourth National Climate Assessment. US Global Change Research Program. 2018;
5 Discussion Report: Sustainable transport solutions to the climate crisis, 2016;
6 Global Mobility Report, 2017, Sustainability for All Initiative;
7 The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World, FAO, 2018;
8 Climate Change Impacts on Global Food Security, Wheeler, Tim; von Braun, Joachim, 2017;
9 G. C. Nelson et al., Food Security, Farming, and Climate Change to 2050: Scenarios, Results, Policy Options, IFPRI, 2010;
10 The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World, FAO, 2018;
11 CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security, 2018;
12 Sustainable development begins with education: how education can contribute to the proposed post 2015 goals, 2014, & Evaluation of a national high school entertainment education program: The Alliance for Climate Education, 2014;
13 Climate Change and Education Policy Brief, The Commonwealth, 2016;
14 Ibid.;
15 Universal Education is key to enhance climate adaptation, Science, 2014;
16 Access to Modern Energy: Assessment and Outlook for Developing and Emerging Regions, 2018;
17 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, 2018;
18 Ibid;
19 Access to Modern Energy: Assessment and Outlook for Developing and Emerging Regions, 2018;
20 EPA Air Quality and Climate Change Research, 2018;
21 World Health Organization, 2018.
21 EPA Air Quality and Climate Change Research;
22 World Health Organization.

UN Sustainable Development Goal 12: Sustainable Consumption and Production is about promoting resource and energy efficiency, sustainable infrastructure, and providing access to basic services, green and decent jobs and a better quality of life for all. Its implementation helps to achieve overall development plans, reduce future economic, environmental and social costs, strengthen economic competitiveness and reduce poverty.1

Progress toward this goal requires a move toward practices that limit harmful by-products. SDG 12 is further refined by targets that can be more readily translated into actions. These targets highlight the interconnected nature of the goals: For example, strategies to promote SDG 12 also support progress toward SDG 13 (Climate Action), SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation) and SDG 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities). Below are a series of synergies that can come from providing access to products, services and systems that address Responsible Consumption & Production.

Invest in Access to Clean Air

Air quality is damaged by many production and consumption activities. Industrial activity and vehicles are the largest emitters of outdoor air pollutants such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, and fine particulate matter.2,3 These types of pollution are strongly linked to higher rates of cancer, heart disease, stroke and respiratory disease, causing over 4 million deaths annually.4 Encouraging responsible production cycles and consumer decisions that limit harmful emissions can increase access to clean air. In fact, air quality in the US has mostly improved since the 1990s due in part to more efficient technologies and the regulations of the Clean Air Act.5

Learn More About Investing in Responsible Production & Consumption

Invest in Access to Clean Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

The production of goods consumed globally has a major water footprint — irrigation accounts for 70% of all human withdrawals of water, while industry accounts for 20%.6 Excessive consumption of water depletes a resource that is already stretched thin; 40% of the world’s population is affected by water scarcity, and water use exceeds recharge in many watersheds.7 At the same time, increasing amounts of water are becoming contaminated. Agriculture is by far the greatest polluter of water, discharging chemical inputs and excessive organic material.8
Industry is also a significant culprit, dumping millions of tons of heavy metals, solvents, toxic sludge and other wastes into water bodies
each year.9 Wider access to clean, safe water depends on the promotion of sustainable water consumption habits to ensure there is enough for a growing population, and on water-conscious production practices to avoid contaminating water.

Invest in Access to Education

While personal consumption habits and decisions have major environmental consequences,10 they can be made more sustainable by increased access to education. Education, especially when targeting environmental issues, has been shown to enhance learners’ ability to assess the consequences of their actions and causes a shift to more environmentally friendly behavior.11,12 Changing consumer habits is increasingly important as the global population pushes toward 8.6 billion by 2030 and as the 1.8 billion children below the age of 1413 mature and make consumer decisions.

Learn More About Investing in Responsible Production & Consumption

Invest in Access to Affordable, Sustainable and Modern Energy

Globally, nearly 1 billion people lack access to electricity, and nearly 40% of the population relies on inefficient energy sources such as biomass, coal, and charcoal for heating and cooking.14,15 These fuels not only pollute indoor air, but contribute to environmental issues
such as deforestation and climate change.16 Providing access to modern, clean-burning cookstoves makes the consumption of energy by this 40% of the population significantly more sustainable. For those who have access to electricity or who are gaining access, associated energy sources will need to become more sustainable and efficient. Increased access to energy-efficient technology and renewable sources of energy have proven to be important factors in making energy consumption more sustainable.17

Invest in Access to Safe, Affordable and Sustainable Transportation

By 2030, consumption related to personal transportation will increase substantially with 1.2 billion more cars on the road and a 50% increase in passenger traffic over 2015 totals.18 These trends are expected to raise greenhouse gas contributions from the transport sector, which already contributes 18% of all human-made emissions.19 At the same time, emissions from freight and shipping are rising even more rapidly than those from personal transportation.20 Yet, access to transportation is key to economic growth and social opportunities.21 As more people worldwide seek the benefits of mobility, access to sustainable transport options means great reductions in the consequences of their consumption choices.

Learn More About Investing in Responsible Production & Consumption

SDG 12: References

1 UN Sustainable Development Goals
2 Union of Concerned Scientists, Vehicles, Air Pollution, and Human Health
3 Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, The State of Global Air, 2018
4 World Health Organization, Ambient Air Pollution: Health Impacts
5 Environmental Protection Agency, “Our Nation’s Air: Status and Trends Through 2017”
6 United Nations
7 UN Sustainable Development Goals
8 UNEP. 2016. A snapshot of the world’s water quality: towards a global assessment
9 The United Nations World Water Development Report 2017: Wastewater, the untapped resource
10 Visions for Change: Recommendations for Effective Policies on Sustainable Lifestyles, UNEP, 2011
11 The Consumer Citizenship Network, Project Report 2005-2006, Hedmark University College, 2006
12 Zsoka et al. 2013. Greening due to environmental education? Environmental knowledge, attitudes, consumer behavior and everyday pro-environmental activities of Hungarian high school and university students
13 United Nations, World Population Prospects 2017
14 UN Sustainable Development Goals
15 Access to Modern Energy: Assessment and Outlook for Developing and Emerging Regions
16 Anenberg S. Balakrishnan K, Jetter J, Masera O, Mehta S, Moss J, Ramanathan V., Cleaner Cooking Solutions to Achieve Health, Climate, and Economic Cobenefits. 2013
17 Global Energy Trends, 2018 edition. A step backward for the energy transition?
18 Global Mobility Report, 2017, Sustainable Mobility for All Initiative
19 Ibid
20 Decarbonizing Transport For a Sustainable Future: Conference Proceedings, Fifth EU-US Transport Research Symposium, National Academy of Sciences, 2017
21 Global Mobility Report, 2017, Sustainable Mobility for All Initiative.

UN Sustainable Development Goal 11: Sustainable Cities & Communities encompasses both the challenges and opportunities presented by the increasing concentration of our global population both in urban centers and smaller but still heavily populated towns. By 2050, an additional 2.4 billion people are expected to be living in urban areas as this trend continues.1 Cities put a strain on natural resources in surrounding regions, and present difficulties in terms of creating housing and transportation systems that are both sustainable and inclusive. On a positive note, dense population means that sustainable solutions to urban challenges can improve the lives for many at once. SDG 11 is further refined by targets that can be more readily translated into actions. These targets highlight the interconnected nature of the goals: For example, strategies to support SDG 11 dovetail with those that support SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation), SDG 7 (Affordable and Clean Energy), and SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-Being). Below are a series of synergies that can come from providing access to products, services and systems that address Sustainable Cities & Communities.

Invest in Access to Clean Air

Nine out of ten urban residents breathe air that does not meet World Health Organization quality guidelines. 2 Air pollution is higher in cities than other areas due to high concentrations of human-generated sources3 vehicles, industrial activity, and power plants are the greatest contributors.4 Of particular concern is black carbon, a sooty fuel by-product that causes respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.5 Encouraging solutions to increase access to clean air will greatly improve the quality of life in urban communities.6

Learn More About Investing investing in Sustainable Cities & Communities

Invest in Access to Clean Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

Close to 1 billion city residents live in slums, where both running water and sanitation services are rare.7 For those living in formal housing, clean water is still not guaranteed. City water in developing countries often contains high levels of contaminants such as fecal bacteria.8 Meanwhile, the water crisis in Flint, Michigan, highlighted widespread exposure to unsafe drinking water in many urban areas in the US.9,10 At the same time, cities are major sources of water pollution. Ninety percent of sewage in developing countries is discharged, untreated, directly into bodies of water,11 and rainwater runoff from cities around the world contaminates streams and rivers. 12 Access to clean water ensures the health and prosperity of growing urban populations, and encouraging better water management in cities will be critical for water quality improvement beyond their boundaries.

Invest in Access to Affordable, Sustainable and Modern Energy

Cities account for 65% of the world’s energy demand, which will grow with rising urban populations.13 This demand translates to 70% of energy-related CO2 emissions globally, making urban areas major contributors to climate change.14 In cities that rely on the burning of fossil fuels for energy, air pollution often exceeds guidelines.15 At the same time, modern energy is essential to basic services such as lighting, cooking, and heating,16 yet 58% of people living in cities in low-income countries lack access to electricity.17 Improving access to sustainable, affordable, and modern energy in cities will bring benefits to more people and safeguard against harmful environmental impacts.

Learn More About Investing investing in Sustainable Cities & Communities

Invest in Access to Sustainable Sources of Food and Nutrition

As urbanization intensifies, so do the challenges of ensuring access to healthy food for residents.18 For many, price is a major barrier. For example, poor urban households in many parts of Africa spend 60-80% of their income on food, and report often going without food due to cost.19 In the US, lack of access to healthy food is also linked to distance as over 4 million urban households live further than a half-mile from a supermarket and lack access to a vehicle.20 These households frequently resort to nearby fast-food and convenience stores, leading to high levels of obesity and diet-related diseases.21 The well-being of all city dwellers depends on continued efforts to increase access to sufficient, healthy, and affordable food.

Invest in Access to Adequate Housing and Living Conditions

In the developing world, the number of people living in urban areas with substandard housing continues to grow. These residents often lack access to basic services such as electricity, running water, or sanitation.22 In developed cities, rising housing costs are placing unsustainable burdens on residents: Nearly half of all US renters pay more than 30% of income on housing,23 and more than 300 million urbanites globally are financially stressed by housing costs.24 This burden forces people to divert money from necessities like healthy food or medical care to pay for housing.25 Expanding access to affordable, safe, adequate housing means improving the health, finances, and stability26 for growing urban populations.

Learn More About Investing investing in Sustainable Cities & Communities

SDG 11: References

1 UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2017- Population
2 UN Sustainable Development Goals
3 Rural and Urban Differences in Air Quality, 2008–12, and Community Drinking Water Quality, 2010–15 — United States. Surveillance Summaries, June 2017
4 World Health Organization
5 Environmental Protection Agency Black Carbon Research
6 2018 Revision of World Urbanization Prospects, Population Division, UN
7 World Resource Institute Cities for All
8 Reducing Inequalities in Water Supply, Sanitation, and Hygiene in the Era of the Sustainable Development Goals. World Bank Group. 2017
9 Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children Associated With the Flint Drinking Water Crisis: A Spatial Analysis of Risk and Public Health Response. Hanna-Attisha M, LaChance J, Sadler RC, Champney Schnepp A. Am J Public Health. 2016
10 Environmental justice and drinking water quality: are there socioeconomic disparities in nitrate levels in U.S. drinking water? Laurel A. Schaider, Lucien Swetschinski, Christopher Campbell, and Ruthann A. Rudel. Environmental Health. 2019
11 United Nations World Water Assessment Programme, “The United Nations World Water Development Report 2015: Water for a Sustainable World”
12 Environmental Protection Agency “Urban Facts”
13 International Renewable Energy Agency, Renewable Energy in Cities, 2016
14 Ibid
15 World Health Organization https://www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/databases/background_information/en/index2.html
16 Powering Cities in the Global South: How Energy Access for All Benefits the Economy and the Environment. WRI.
17 World Bank. 2016. World Development Indicators
18 International Institute for Environment and Development, Urban poverty, food security and climate change
19 Penn Institute for Urban Research, Feeding Cities: Food Security in a Rapidly Urbanizing World, 2013
20 USDA Economic Research Service, The Extent of Limited Food Access in the United States
21 Ibid
22 World Resource Institute Cities for All
23 America’s Rental Housing 2017. Joint Center for Housing Studies. Harvard
24 McKinsey Global Institute, A blueprint for addressing the global affordable housing challenge, 2014
25 National League of Cities, Affordable Housing & Health: City Roles and Strategies for Progress, 2019
26 Scott, M. 2012. “Beyond Four Walls.” In The Big Idea: Global Spread of Affordable Housing, edited by Scott Anderson and Rochelle Beck, 79–81. Washington, DC.

As progress is made to develop communities and economies, SDG 10 works to leave no one behind in the process. The share of the global population living in poverty has declined substantially in this century, but the benefits have been concentrated in a few countries, and have not accrued for disadvantaged groups within countries.1 Addressing inequality is not only key in poverty reduction — it also combats unequal opportunities today that would otherwise lead to unequal outcomes tomorrow. SDG 10 is further refined by targets that that can be more readily translated into actions. These targets highlight the interconnected nature of the goals: For example, strategies to support Reduced Inequalities also promote progress toward SDG 5 (Gender Equality) and SDG 3 (Quality Education). Below are a series of synergies that can come from providing access to products, services and systems that address Reduced Inequalities.

Invest in Access to Fair Treatment and Equal Opportunity

The poorest segments of society often face unequal treatment and barriers to accessing the same opportunities as those of wealthier groups, fueling the cycle of inequality. Gender is a major basis for discrimination — girls in poor households are less likely than boys to be in school,2 and women everywhere are more often victims of gender violence,3 hiring discrimination4 and pay discrimination than men.5 Discrimination based on race and ethnicity also acts to perpetuate inequality. In the U.S. and abroad, rates of poverty, poor health, and low education for communities of color and marginalized ethnicities remain disproportionately high.6,7 Further fueling this cycle, certain policies and attitudes further disadvantage people simply because they are poor, leading to further segregation.8 To reverse the cycle of inequality and discrimination, systems of resource allocation and access to opportunities must be balanced.

Learn More About Investing in Solutions for Reduced Inequalities

Invest in Access to Financial Services

The percentage of the world’s population utilizing financial services is growing, up to 69% as of 2017,9 but many opportunities remain to improve access to this important tool to combat inequality. Financial services increase resiliency to financial risk and enable more household savings, leading to more spending on education and healthy food.10 Access to credit plays a similarly powerful role for low-wealth individuals who leverage it to become entrepreneurs, or in the case of the 2 billion households that depend on agriculture for income, to improve inputs and techniques for better production.11 Recent evidence suggests that access to financial services for all socioeconomic levels works to reduce overall wealth inequalities as both new entrepreneurs and wage earners benefit.12

Invest in Access to Healthcare Services

As wealth inequalities have grown, so have inequalities in access to the benefits of healthcare. The gap in life expectancy between the richest and poorest in the U.S. has only grown during the 2000s.13 Internationally, inequalities in health outcomes are also prevalent as gaps in both health service coverage and outcomes persist (and are even growing in some developing countries).14 Low-income individuals are less likely to have health insurance or to access to primary or specialty care, and face higher rates of morbidity, mortality, and hospitalization as a consequence.16 Poor health also acts to reinforce existing wealth disparities as it limits economic productivity and burdens households with the expenses of care.17 Expanding access to healthcare is a powerful solution to reversing these cycles of inequality.

Learn More About Investing in Solutions for Reduced Inequalities

Invest in Access to Education

Despite widespread appreciation for the importance of education, gaps in access persist for many around the world. Current estimates put the number of children and youth who are out of school at 262 million,18 and girls are still less likely to attend than boys, especially those from the poorest households.19 More education comes with better economic opportunity, better chances at employment, and increased income.20 A recent study in the U.S. found that higher education levels among communities of color led to lower unemployment and incarceration rates, and closed the wage gap compared to the white population.21 If quality education is made more accessible, it will reduce both social and economic inequalities as more people experience its benefits.22

Learn More About Investing in Solutions for Reduced Inequalities

SDG 10: References

1 https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/25078/9781464809583.pdf
2 https://resourcecentre.savethechildren.net/library/every-last-child-children-world-chooses-forget
3 Anke Hoeffler and James Fearon, “Conflict and Violence Assessment Paper”, Copenhagen Consensus Center, 2014
4 Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality. Discrimination: State of the Union 2018. ILO. 2016. Women at Work: Trends 2016. Geneva: International Labour Office
5 Sumner, A. (2012). The New Face of Poverty: How has the Composition of Poverty in Low Income and Lower Middle Income Countries (excluding China) Changed since the 1990s?
6 https://www.catholiccharitiesusa.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Policy-Paper-Poverty-and-Racism-1.pdf
7 https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Poverty/A.66.265.pdf
8 The Global Findex Database 2017. Measuring Financial Inclusion and the Fintech Revolution. World Bank.
9 Ibid.
10 Rural and Agricultural Finance Learning Lab and Initiative for Smallholder Finance
11 Inflection Point: Unlocking Growth in the Era of Farmer Finance. 2016
12 Household Access to Finance: Poverty Alleviation and Risk Mitigation. 2008. Ch3 of Finance for All? Policies and Pitfalls in Expanding Access. A World Bank Policy Research Report
13 Chetty et al. 2016. The Association Between Income and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2001-2014. Journal of the American Medical Association
14 Progress on Global Health Goals: Are the Poor Being Left Behind? World Bank. 2014
15 Dhruv Khullar Dave A. Chokshi. 2018. Health, Income, & Poverty: Where We Are & What Could Help. Health Policy Brief. Health Affairs
16 Andersen, R. et al. 2002. Access to Medical Care for Low-Income Persons: How Do Communities Make a Difference? Medical Care Research and Review
17 Bor, Jacob; Cohen, Gregory H; Galea, Sandro. 2017. Population health in an era of rising income inequality: USA, 1980–2015. The Lancet
18 UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Global Education Database. 2017. http://data.uis.unesco.org/
19 Education for All 2000-2015: achievements and challenges. EFA global monitoring report. 2015
20 https://www.eda.admin.ch/dam/deza/en/documents/aktuell/news/20160923-weltbildungsbericht_EN.pdf
21 Fryer, Roland G. Racial Inequality in the 21st Century: The Declining Significance of Discrimination. 2010. Harvard University, EdLabs
22 Abdullah, A. et al. 2015. Does Education Reduce Income Inequality? A Meta-Regression Analysis. Journal of Economic Surveys.

Investment in infrastructure and innovation are crucial drivers of economic growth and development, and are key to finding lasting solutions to both economic and environmental challenges. Promoting sustainable industries and investing in scientific research and innovation are all important ways to facilitate sustainable development. More than 4 billion people still do not have access to the Internet, and 90% are from the developing world. Bridging this digital divide is crucial to ensuring equal access to information and knowledge, as well as fostering innovation and entrepreneurship.1 SDG 9 is further refined by targets that can be more easily translated into actions. These targets highlight the interconnected nature of the goals. For example, strategies to support inclusive industrialization and innovation also promote progress toward SDG 5 (Gender Equality) and SDG 8 (Decent Work & Economic Growth). Below are a series of synergies that can come from providing access to products, services and systems that work to drive Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure.

Invest in Fair Treatment and Equal Opportunity

Recent research points to a strong connection between openness to different cultures and ideas, and the ability of a place to adapt to economic changes and grow.2,3 Currently, however, not all are equally able to innovate. Women have more difficulty acquiring external business financing than men, and only received 2% of all venture capital in the US in 2017.4,5 Disparities in financing opportunities also extend into microfinance, where evidence has emerged of discrimination against disabled micro-entrepreneurs.6 Fostering inclusive growth depends on removing these biases and connecting all with opportunities to contribute to innovation.

Learn More About Investing in Industry, Innovation & Infrastructure

Invest in Financial Services

Sophisticated financial services will provide smooth cash flows and enable individuals and businesses to accumulate assets while making productive investments. Small businesses require financing to grow, and currently there is a lack of financial institutions that can support small to medium-sized enterprises through traditional loans or a line of credit.7 As additional financing for SMEs is more available, national productivity and social welfare can be improved as there is additional access to employment and resources. Technology can be used not only to facilitate payment transfers but also to access banking services remotely, making financial services available imore broadly.8

Invest in Telecommunication Systems

In the last decade the number of people that are connected to the internet has tripled. This still leaves 60% of people lacking internet access globally. Mobile and wireless coverage are more available than household internet access, and the cost of data prohibits access for many.9 Communication technologies play a role in almost all industries including health, education, agriculture, finance, transportation, energy, and commerce. With the advancements in infrastructure and innovation in technologies, telecommunication services will be available at a lower cost and higher speeds.10

Learn More About Investing in Industry, Innovation & Infrastructure

Invest in Affordable, Sustainable and Modern Energy

Access to affordable, sustainable modern energy encompasses the ability to improve living conditions through lighting, education, and fresh water. Available forms of energy in many places are not only time-consuming to gather and inefficient, but also unhealthy and unsafe. A lack of developed infrastructure globally shows that approximately 20% of people live without electricity, and 50% of all households and 90% of rural households use solid fuels for cooking and heating. These include unprocessed biomass, coal, or charcoal.11 The danger from indoor use of these materials lies in the chemicals produced when burning in confined areas; solid fuels in households accounted for 2.2 million deaths in 2005.12 Access to electricity and biomass cookstoves can boost economic development and reduce poverty and hunger, improving conditions for the poorest segments of society. Improvements lead to greater outputs in agriculture, commerce, and industry with greater more efficient production. 13

Invest in Clean Water including Sanitation and Hygiene

Worldwide, three out of four jobs are water dependent. Investment in water infrastructure not only promotes health initiatives and job creation in developing areas but also stimulates advancement toward green economies.14 In agrarian communities where agriculture supports not only the economy but also acts as the main food source, access is critical to sustainable growth. Infrastructure that supports maintenance, reduction, reduction, recycling, and reuse of water must be put in place, updated and supported.15 Sound water management involves supply, infrastructure, and wastewater treatment.

Learn More About Investing in Industry, Innovation & Infrastructure

Invest in Clean Air

With the modernization of societies globally, infrastructure and industry need to be designed in a way that reduces contributions to climate change. Since the industrial revolution, there has been an unsustainable rapid increase in carbon dioxide emissions causing global warming.16 Industries need to focus on reducing waste and becoming more sustainable with environmentally practical process and technologies.17 Investment into energy efficiency and an increase in investment in low-carbon initiatives through innovation across industries will support clean air practices.18 In addition to providing clear health benefits, clean air has also been linked to broader economic benefits as it results in more productive workforces and healthier populations who save on avoided medical expenses.19

Invest in Safe, Affordable and Sustainable Transportation

Transportation and infrastructure development support economic growth through industries. Additional infrastructure makes the transportation of goods easier, faster and less expensive. Advanced transportation infrastructure supports complex supply chains globally, nationally and regionally with the movement of goods and people. Establishing trade routes and partners across these categories links economic functions in the distribution of goods from producer to consumer. Progress in developing advanced infrastructure supports economic growth as more jobs are accessible to those who would otherwise not have access.

Learn More About Investing in Industry, Innovation & Infrastructure

SDG 9: References

1 https://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sustainable-development-goals/goal-9-industry-innovation-and-infrastructure.html
2 https://www.citylab.com/life/2011/12/diversity-leads-to-economic-growth/687/
3 https://images.forbes.com/forbesinsights/StudyPDFs/Innovation_Through_Diversity.pdf
4 http://fortune.com/2018/01/31/female-founders-venture-capital-2017/
5 International Finance Corporate (2013f) ‘International Finance Corporation Enterprise Finance Gap Database’.
6 Discrimination by Microcredit Officers: Theory and Evidence on Disability in Uganda https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1722122
7 https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/21431/WorldBank_SDGAtlas_09_industry_innovation_infrastructure.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.

8 https://stats.unctad.org/Dgff2016/prosperity/goal9/target_9_3.html

9 https://www.2030vision.com/globalgoals/industry-innovation-and-infrastructure
10 https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Conferences/WTDC/WTDC17/Documents/declaration/ba_declaration_e.pdf
11 https://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/publications/9241591358/en/
12 http://www.iiasa.ac.at/web/home/research/researchPrograms/Energy/IIASA-GEF-UNIDO_Access-to-Modern-Energy_2013-05-27.pdf
13 https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/17462PB1.pdf
14 http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/environment/water/wwap/wwdr/2016-water-and-jobs/
15 www.unwater.org/app/uploads/2016/08/Water-and-Sanitation-Interlinkages.pdf
16 https://ourworldindata.org/co2-andother-greenhouse-gas-emissions
17 https://www.iberdrola.com/top-stories/iberdrola-shares-with-you/industry-innovation-and-infrastructure
18 https://www.iberdrola.com/top-stories/iberdrola-shares-with-you/climate-action
19 https://www.epa.gov/clean-air-act-overview/benefits-and-costs-clean-air-act-1990-2020-second-prospective-study

SDG 8 seeks to strengthen inclusive economic growth and promote decent, productive work for all. Even with current levels of growth, it is estimated that the number of unemployed globally will rise due to expanding labor forces. Progress towards SDG 8 requires both the creation of new jobs and steps to make work conditions fair and decent. To accomplish these goals and encourage growth, the provision of basic energy, tech, transportation, and education services is crucial. SDG 8 is further refined by targets that can be more readily translated into actions. These targets highlight the interconnected nature of the goals. For example, strategies to support Decent Work and Economic Growth also promote SDG 1 (No Poverty), and SDG 9 (Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure). Below are a series of synergies that can come from providing access to products, services and systems that address Decent Work and Economic Growth.

Invest in Access to Fair Treatment and Equal Opportunity

Fair treatment and equal opportunity are dependent on decent work and economic growth. Social protection systems provide safeguards to extreme poverty and unfair treatment, but 55% of the global population lacks at least one of these protections.1 Currently, there are approximately 152 million children globally aged 5-11 participating in the labor force, a situation detrimental to their futures and well-being.2 Unfair workplace treatment is also reflected in the gender pay gap. Currently, the difference in earnings between men and women sits at 23% and may take decades to close without renewed action. In addition, there are significant gender differences in access to job opportunities as 94% of men ages 25 to 54 are in the labor force compared to 63% for women of the same age.3 Efforts toward decent work and inclusive economic growth must address these issues of differential work treatment and opportunities.4

Learn More About Investing in Decent Work & Economic Growth

Invest in Access to Financial Services

Currently, there are two billion people who lack access to financial services, leaving them unbanked.5 Financial services allow individuals to take ownership of incomes, savings, assets, and investments. Services to be provided include automated teller machines, point of sale terminals, branches of payment services, and agents of payment services.6 Participation in the use of financial services allows individuals and firms to gain financial stability, insure against risks, and invest in education.7 In these ways and more, access to financial services underpins job creation and overall increases in economic productivity.8

Invest in Access to Telecommunication Services

Telecommunications are closely connected to the provision of access to decent work and economic productivity. Individuals typically benefit from the establishment of the internet through e-mail, social networks, and search engines.9 When businesses are able to harness digital technology, they gain access to more markets, experience increased efficiency, and can develop innovative links with customers.10 For example, the internet is being used by entrepreneurs for online payment platforms which significantly streamline transactions.11

Learn More About Investing in Decent Work & Economic Growth

Invest in Access to Education

Investing in education and job training enables individuals to develop the skills and knowledge crucial to succeed in the workforce and increase earnings.12 Additional education leads to easier entry into the job market, and to more stable employment opportunities that require skills such as basic literacy or computer use. The relationship between education and decent work is even stronger if the skills that are taught are relevant to the types of employment available in the local context.13 Beyond these individual benefits, a workforce with knowledge and skills gained through education and training is more productive and is capable of introducing innovative processes or ideas into a business.14

Invest in Access to Affordable, Sustainable and Modern Energy

Reliable and modern energy goes hand in hand with economic stability and growth.15 Energy enables businesses and industry to increase productivity and can bring access to fundamental internet and telecommunications connections.16 Accordingly, the presence of modern energy is essential in generating additional employment opportunities as economic activity accelerates. To complement the environmental goals embodied by the SDGs, however, the energy sources used to enable economic growth and opportunity must also be sustainable and climate-conscious.

Learn More About Investing in Decent Work & Economic Growth

Invest in Access to Clean Air

Fostering opportunities for decent work is difficult if workplace conditions are unhealthy. Many types of work environments can have poor and unhealthy air quality, including construction sites and office buildings with poor ventilation.17 If workers are exposed to pollutants such as radon, dust, or mold, they can develop respiratory issues like asthma, chronic lung diseases, and cancer.18 Clean air has also been linked to broader economic benefits due to more productive workforces and healthier populations, resulting in avoided medical expenses.19 Improving access to clean air within the workplace and without can thus establish the conditions necessary for decent work and economic growth.

Invest in Access to Safe, Affordable and Sustainable Transportation

Economic growth depends on efficient, reliable and interconnected transportation networks. Seaports, rivers, railways, roads and airways and informational technologies all serve to establish trade routes and link businesses with their consumers. The resulting efficiencies in conducting transactions and accessing materials enables the growth of existing businesses and facilitates the establishment of new enterprises. Transportation is also important for individuals to obtain decent work: With greater mobility options, workers are better able to reach job centers that are not always close by.20

Learn More About Investing in Decent Work & Economic Growth

SDG 8: References

1 https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/poverty/
2 Ibid
3 https://www.eapn.eu/what-is-poverty/causes-of-poverty-and-inequality/
4 https://www.sharing.org/why-nations-need-to-share/global-poverty-inequality
5 https://www.odi.org/publications/3480-equity-development-why-it-important-and-how-achieve-it
6 https://blogs.worldbank.org/voices/five-challenges-prevent-financial-access-people-developing-countries
7 https://www.activesustainability.com/sustainable-development/financial-inclusion-key-to-reducing-poverty/
8 https://medium.com/@IFC_org/why-digital-banking-services-are-vital-to-reduce-poverty-in-the-developing-world-35ac35758f04
9 https://www.healthpovertyaction.org/news-events/key-facts-poverty-and-poor-health/
10 https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1196/annals.1425.011
11 https://www.deloitte.com/uk/en/pages/technology-media-and-telecommunications/articles/value-of-connectivity.html
12 https://www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/verizon-innovative-learning-tech-program/
13 https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/West_Internet-Access.pdf
14 https://gemreportunesco.wordpress.com/2013/10/17/we-will-never-eradicate-poverty-without-quality-education-for-all/
15 https://borgenproject.org/poverty-education-statistics/
16 https://www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/10-barriers-to-education-around-the-world-2/
17 https://www.childfund.org/poverty-and-education/
18 http://blogs.worldbank.org/water/water-key-poverty-reduction-and-health
19 https://lifewater.org/blog/water-poverty
20 http://siwi.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/waterandmacroecon.pdf
21 https://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/news-and-events/final-evaluation-acp-eu-water-facility_en
22 https://www.urban.org/urban-wire/reduce-poverty-improving-housing-stability
23 https://www.sheltertheworld.org/poor-people-living-in-poverty-extreme-housing-conditions/

SDG 7 aims to ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services, with an emphasis on renewable energy. 1 Central to this goal is expanding the infrastructure and enhancing the technology for supplying energy in developing countries. Affordable and clean energy are crucial to the achievement of almost all of the Sustainable Development Goals. While progress towards SDG 7 has been made in recent years, it falls short of what will be needed to meet the targets for 2030. SDG 7 is further refined by targets that can be more readily translated into actions. These targets highlight the interconnected nature of the goals: For example, strategies to achieve the goal of Affordable and Clean Energy are intertwined with strategies that support SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-Being) and SDG 10 (Reduced Inequalities). Below are a series of synergies that can come from providing access to products, services and systems that address Affordable & Clean Energy.

Access to Safe, Affordable and Sustainable Transportation

According to the World Bank, transportation accounts for 23% of global energy related greenhouse gas emissions.2 High-carbon transport generates health, environmental, and economic losses associated with pollution as 70% of fuel energy is lost in engine and driveline inefficiencies.3 By 2030, there will be more than 1 billion additional people on earth, and aspirations for mobility will continue to rise. 4 Passenger traffic is expected to increase by about 50% while freight volume is expected to grow by more than 70% during that timeframe.5,6 If these increases rely on use of fossil fuels, the negative impacts on health, the environment and economies will be exacerbated. 7 Further, millions of people globally live in rural areas where there they often lack access to affordable (or any) transportation services,8 and in 2018 roughly 55.3% of the world’s population lived in urban areas. An additional two billion people are expected to move to cities by 2045, which will strain public transportation systems. Meeting the growing need for mobility in both rural and urban areas has the potential to improve people’s quality of life, as well as to reduce pollution via energy-efficient, affordable transportation. Urban mass transit systems and services need to be upgraded while rural transportation systems should be developed or improved.9, 10, 11, 12 Making transportation efficient, affordable and green will be essential in the fight to combat climate change. 13

Learn More About Investing in Affordable, Clean Energy

Access to Adequate Housing and Living Conditions

Residential buildings account for 24% of energy consumption and 18% of CO2 emissions globally. Housing systems that are energy efficient and that use affordable, clean energy save costs and reduce air pollution.14 Current projections place the global housing deficit, especially for quality housing, at over 2 billion people by 2030. If new housing stock fails to be sustainable and energy efficient, cities and countries will be confronted with ever more dangerous energy consumption patterns. Well-designed and environmentally conscious housing development presents an opportunity to mitigate climate change. Planning of residential areas and thoughtful urban renewal, particularly focused on upgrading housing in heavily populated urban areas with substandard housing and informal settlements, can help reduce the carbon footprint of cities and the greenhouse gas emissions of the building sector.15

Access to Affordable, Sustainable and Modern Energy

Access to modern energy is fundamental for development and poverty reduction, yet many people, particularly in developing countries, struggle to obtain affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy resources to meet their increasing energy demand. Individuals who live in poverty and, consequently, poor housing disproportionately lack access to affordable clean energy services and clean cooking fuels.16, 17, 18, 19 Affordable and clean energy services are a crucial input to supporting the provision of basic needs such as food, lighting, use of appliances and water.20 Energy access policies and new technologies are steadily leading to progress, as the number of people without access to electricity fell below 1 billion in 2017.21 Despite these success stories, progress on providing electricity access remains uneven. The outlook for electrification shows that the world is not yet on track to achieve universal access by 2030.22 In 2016, 3 billion people, or over 40% of the world’s population, were still cooking with polluting fuels (e.g., coal or wood) and stoves, leading to high levels of household air pollution. The health and well-being of this population is adversely affected by the lack of clean cooking fuels. This is especially true for women and children, who are typically the main users of household energy. The solution is in transitioning to cleaner fuels and technologies, and improvements in stove efficiency.23, 24

Learn More About Investing in Affordable, Clean Energy

SDG 7: References

1 https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg7
2 https://blogs.worldbank.org/category/tags/greenhouse-gas-emissions
3 https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content-/documents/11686Thematic%20discussion%201%20concept%20note.pdf
4 https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/index.php?page=view&type=20000&nr=802&menu=2993
5 https://sustainable-development.un.org/content/documents/11686Thematic%20discussion%201%20concept%20note.pdf
6 https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/28542/120500.pdf?sequence=6
7 https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/28542/120500.pdf?sequence=6
8 https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/2375Mobilizing%20Sustainable%20Transp-ort.pdf
9 https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/28542/120500.pdf?sequence=6
10 http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/urbanization/-the_worlds_cities_in_2018_data_booklet.pdf
11 https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/2375Mobilizing%20Sustainable%20Transport.pdf
12 https://www.who.int/gho-/road_safety/mortality/number_text/en/
13 http://sum4all.org/resources/publications
14 http://solidgroundcampaign.org/sites/default/files/sdgresourceguide.pdf
15 https://unhabita-t.org/urban-themes/housing-slum-upgrading/
16 https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/report/2017/overview/
17 http://solidgroundcampaign.org/sites/default/files/sdgresourceguide.pdf
18 https://ww-w.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/blog/2016/10/on-world-habitat-day-un-calls-for-puttingadequate-housing-at-centre-of-urban-policy/
19 https://unhabitat.org/un-habitat-for-the-sustainable-development-goals/11-1-adequate-housing/
20 https://www.unescap.org/our-work/energy/energy-sustainabledevelopment/about
21 https://www.iea.org/sdg/electricity/
22 Ibid.
23 https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/report/2018/Goal-07/
24 https://www.iea.org/sdg/cooking/

Clean Water and Sanitation UN Sustainable Development Goal 6: Clean Water and Sanitation recognizes that access to clean water and sanitation can materially improve the living conditions of even the world’s poorest citizens while preventing millions of unnecessary deaths annually. A lack of access to clean water affects people’s lives in myriad ways including their access to nutritious foods, levels of health, and ultimately, their financial well-being. SDG 6 is further refined by targets that can be more readily translated into actions. These targets highlight the interconnected nature of the goals: For example, strategies to support Clean Water and Sanitation also promote progress toward SDG 1 (No Poverty) and SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-Being). Below are a series of synergies that can come from providing access to products, services and systems that address Clean Water and Sanitation.

Invest in Access to Clean Water, Including Sanitation & Hygiene

Water scarcity, poor water quality and inadequate sanitation negatively impact food security, health, housing, and educational opportunities for poor families across the world. At the current time, more than 2 billion people are living with the risk of reduced access to freshwater resources and, by 2050, at least one in four people is likely to live in a country affected by chronic or recurring shortages of fresh water. Drought afflicts some of the world’s poorest countries, worsening hunger and malnutrition.1 Fortunately, there has been great progress made in the past decade regarding drinking sources and sanitation, whereby over 90% of the world’s population now has access to improved sources of drinking water. However, as the negative effects of climate change grow, previously available water sources are becoming scarcer, jeopardizing some of the improvements that have been felt by communities around the world. Women and girls are disproportionately experiencing the impacts from limited water supplies, as they are responsible for water collection in 80% of households without access to water on premises.

Learn More About Investing in Clean Water & Sanitation

Invest in Access to Adequate Housing and Living Conditions

Approximately 2.4 billion people lack access to basic sanitation services, such as toilets.2 In 2015, 892 million people practiced open defecation, and only 27% of the population in less developed countries had basic handwashing facilities.3 Even in densely populated urban areas with run-down housing and high rates of poverty, water piped directly to households and piped sewage systems have been shown to result in significant improvements in the quality of living conditions.4

Learn More About Investing in Clean Water & Sanitation

SDG 6: References

1 https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/water-and-sanitation/
2 https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/water-and-sanitation/
3 https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg6
4 https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/9666.pdf

UN Sustainable Development Goal 5: Gender Equality targets the systemic barriers women face and aims to transform cycles of disempowerment into cycles of empowerment. Women are too often denied access to healthcare, education, financial services, housing and employment, or face significant roadblocks to such access. Not only are these services linked to basic human rights, but each is a fundamental building block for autonomy and agency. Though it is a large task, contributions to this goal can reinforce one another from many angles. SDG 5 is further refined by targets that can be more readily translated into actions. These targets highlight the interconnected nature of the goals: For example, strategies to support Gender Equality also promote progress toward SDG 4 (Quality Education) and SDG 8 (Decent Work & Economic Growth). Below are a series of synergies that can come from providing access to products, services and systems that address Gender Equality.

Invest in Access to Telecommunication Services

As more of the world’s communications and business takes place online, those without access to supporting tools risk being left behind.1,2 Currently, some 200 million fewer women are online than men, and women are 21% less likely to own a mobile phone than men.3 With access to the internet, women are better able to obtain education, employment, government services and financial services that are otherwise hard to reach,4 and to increase personal income.5 Women’s online participation also sparks systems-level change, as it enables them to engage in self-expression and engage in key policy and decision-making processes.6 Meanwhile, women are underrepresented as workers and leaders in the technology sector, despite the rapid growth of the field and demand for tech skills.7 Furthermore, jobs in which women are widely employed are at risk of automation, necessitating transition to new fields.8 Greater access to telecommunication services will enable women to develop skills required for the future.

Learn More About Investing in Solutions for Gender Equality

Invest in Access to Healthcare Services

The healthcare needs of women and girls in many global regions are not being met,9 especially in reproductive health.10 Women lack adequate access to healthcare due to distant service locations, cost and gendered stigmas associated with seeking treatment.11,12 These access issues are compounded by gender norms in regions where women do not have control over household financial resources and are unable to seek care without partner or employer permission.13 When women have access to healthcare, the benefits multiply. For example, women who receive services to avoid unintended pregnancy have greater educational opportunities and are better able to enter and remain in the workforce.14

Invest in Access to Financial Services

Women have less access to financial services than men globally. Women are less likely to hold an account at a financial institution, especially in developing economies, and they save and borrow less than men.16 Women have more difficulty acquiring external business financing;17,18 for example, in the US, women received only 2% of all venture capital in 2017.19 Access to financial services provides a key pathway to women’s empowerment.20, 21

Learn More About Investing in Solutions for Gender Equality

Invest in Access to Fair Treatment and Equal Opportunity

Despite increasing participation in the workforce, women earn only 77% of what men earn globally and are given fewer advancement opportunities.22 In the workplace, women are given less support, and are more likely to be passed over for important assignments, than men.23 Violence against women is common in all societies and at all income levels, causing more deaths than those linked to civil wars.24 Child marriage, genital mutilation, and assault not only result in serious health problems for a woman,25 but prevent her from attending school or keeping a job, and undermine her ability to make her own decisions. 26

Invest in Access to Education

Promoting access to education empowers women to contribute economically; studies have shown that women’s participation boosts the economic power of a country.27 Access to education also helps break down perceptions of limitations or differences between the capabilities of men and women. 28 Globally, however, nearly 10% of primary school-aged girls are out of school, and only two-thirds of all countries have achieved gender parity in primary education. 29 The disparity is even greater at the secondary and upper-secondary level, where only 45% and 25% of countries, respectively, have reached gender parity.30 Increasing access to education to bridge this gap will open the door for more women to live empowered and prosperous lives.

Learn More About Investing in Solutions for Gender Equality

Invest Access to CleanWater, Sanitation and Hygiene

Women worldwide spend 200 million hours gathering water.31 Water is also closely connected to hygiene and health, which impact women’s livelihood and economic opportunities. For example, clean water facilitates healthier pregnancies. The evidence shows that birthing rates, complications and child growth are affected by the lack of safe, clean water.32

Invest in Access to Adequate Housing and Living Conditions

Unequal access to housing for women limits opportunities for upward mobility. Quality housing leads to increased physical and financial security, healthier living conditions, and the stability to seek employment.33 However, women in many countries are prevented from owning property, including housing, due to gendered laws and social norms.34 Furthermore, women often have greater difficulty securing housing due to their lower economic standing than men.35 In the US, this challenge is intensified as a shortage of affordable housing for low-income households persists, disproportionately affecting the many households led by single mothers.36,37

Learn More About Investing in Solutions for Gender Equality

SDG 5: References

1 The Case for the Web, The Web Foundation, 2018;
2 Women & The Web, Intel, 2012;
3 Closing the global gender gap in technology, Global Fund for Women, 2018;
4 Women & The Web, Intel, 2012;
5 Women’s Rights Online Report, The Web Foundation, 2018;
6 Doubling Digital Opportunities, The Broadband Commission, 2013
7 Making Innovation and Technology Work for Women, UN Women, 2017
8 CSC’s Gender and Automation Report, 2018
9 UN Development Programme Goal 3 Targets, 2018
10 “Issues in Reproductive Health,” Fatalla, Mahmoud, UN News Center
11 “…Gender Inequity in Health…”, WHO, 2007
12 Women’s Lives and Challenges: Equality and Empowerment Since 2000, US AID, 2014
13 Key Barriers to Women’s Access to HIV Treatment: A Global Review, UN Women
14 Promoting Gender Equality Through Health, US AID
15 Global Findex Database
16 “Small and medium enterprise finance: new findings, trends and G-20/Global partnership on financial inclusion progress,” International Finance Corporation, 2013
17 International Finance Corporation Enterprise Finance Gap Database
18 Making Innovation and Technology Work for Women, UN Women, 2017
20 Increasing Gender Equality through Financial Inclusion, GIIN
21 “Empowering Women with Micro Finance: Evidence from Bangladesh,” Pitt, M et. al., 2006
22 “Women at Work: Trends 2016,” International Labour Office
23 Gender Discrimination in many forms for today’s working women, Pew Research, 2017
24 “Conflict and Violence Assessment Paper”, Anke Hoeffler and James Fearon, Copenhagen Consensus Center, 2014
25 “Global and regional estimates of violence against women,” WHO
26 “Voice and Agency: Empowering Women and Girls for Shared Prosperity,” World Bank. 2012
27 Why is Gender Equality Important to Economic Development?, GVI, 2018
28 Promoting gender equality in schools, Gender and Education Association
29 Global Education Monitoring Report Gender Review: Meeting Our Commitments to Gender Equality in Education. 2018. UNESCO
30 Ibid
31 Unicef, 2016
32 Unicef, 2016
33 “Level the Field: Gender Inequality in Land Rights,” Habitat for Humanity, 2016
34 Social and Gender Inequalities in Environment and Health, WHO, 2010
35 Gender Lens on Affordable Housing, ICRW, 2016
36 “The Gap: A Shortage of Affordable Homes,” National Low Income Housing Coalition, 2017
37 “Hunger and Poverty in Female-Headed Households,” Bread for the World, 2016

SDG 4: Quality Education seeks to not only increase the number of children in school but to enhance the quality of education and boost learning outcomes. A good education is pivotal for successful lives and strong communities, but over 250 million school-aged youth around the world are not in school, and disparities in access to educational resources and outcomes remain strong.1 Without renewed efforts to address these challenges, many children will be left behind without the knowledge and skills to adapt to a rapidly changing world. SDG 4 is further refined by targets that can be more readily translated into actions. These targets highlight the interconnected nature of the goals: For example, strategies to support Quality Education complement those that support SDG 1 (No Poverty) and SDG 5 (Gender Equality). Below are a series of synergies that can come from providing access to products, services and systems that work toward providing Quality Education.

Access to Fair Treatment and Equal Opportunity

Discrimination and unequal opportunity prevent students worldwide from engaging in school or accessing quality education. Inequalities are well documented in the U.S., where schools of majority-black students tend to have less-experienced teaching staff and offer fewer advanced courses than other schools.2 Globally, gender-based harassment and lack of adequate sanitation facilities cause female students to avoid school or drop out entirely.3 Discrimination and prohibitive infrastructure are also serious problems for students with disabilities, about 90% of whom are out of school, even in developed countries.4 Clearing a path to quality education for all will require equal access to opportunities and resources, and the end of unfair treatment.

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Access to Telecommunication Systems

Access to communication technology opens up a wide array of potential for schools and independent learners. The ability of a teacher to employ the internet as a classroom tool increases the variety of online content available to supplement curricula and is linked to better learning outcomes.5 Proficiency in computer and internet use is also an increasingly important skill for success in the global workplace, and incorporation of these technologies in educational settings ensures that students will be better prepared for life after school.6 Beyond these benefits, promoting better access to communication technology in schools will reinforce the push within SDG 4 for inclusive and equitable education. This is due to the persistent “digital divide” evidenced by disparities in internet access and digital literacy on a global scale and within countries like the U.S.7,8

Access to Education

On average, one in five school-aged children are out of school — a figure that is higher in regions such as southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.9 Even for those in school, not all have access to quality education, leading to substandard learning outcomes and a lack of proficiency in critical skills like reading.10 Poverty, distance, displacement and discriminatory environments are well-known barriers to education access, but underinvestment in the education system in the world’s poorest countries also acts to limit opportunities.11 Beyond K-12 education, job training enables those in the workforce to build the skills necessary for career advancement and adaptation to shifting trends. However, not all businesses prioritize employee training equally, leaving room for improvement in enhancing access to this important form of education.12

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Access to Affordable, Sustainable and Modern Energy

Modern energy and electricity act as catalysts for education. Electric lighting in schools allows classes to be taught early in the morning and late at night, and lighting in the home means extended potential study hours for students.13 Electricity can also bring access to the internet, an increasingly important teaching tool, and enables the use of computers and digital media. Along with lighting, the presence of these electricity-based resources has been shown to boost enrollment, learning, and even teacher retention.14,15 Despite recent progress, 188 million children worldwide still go to schools that lack electricity; for sub-Saharan Africa, this represents about 90% of primary-school-aged students.16 Bringing modern energy to underserved areas can greatly enhance learning environments for current and future generations.

Access to CleanWater, Sanitation and Hygiene

Illnesses attributed to unsafe drinking water account for the loss of 272 million school days each year, especially in developing countries.17 Absences and dropouts are also common when poor household water access causes children, especially girls, to spend more time collecting water and less time at school.18 Girls are even less likely to attend school if sanitation facilities are not private, not safe, or simply not available.19 Furthermore, recent research points to negative cognitive effects of dehydration and water-borne infestations that can limit students’ ability to learn.20,21 Globally, about half of all schools have basic hygiene services and 30% lack safe water supply,22 but efforts to address the problem have been powerful — attendance rates have risen dramatically in schools after the addition of clean water or adequate sanitation facilities.23

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SDG 4: References

1 Education Data Release: One in Every Five Children, Adolescents and Youth is Out of School. UNESCO. http://uis.unesco.org/en/news/education-data-release-one-every-five-children-adolescents-and-youth-out-school
2 https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2019/01/15/equal-opportunity-in-american-education/
3 Global education monitoring report gender review 2018: Meeting our commitments to gender equality in education. UNESCO. 2017.
3 https://www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/10-barriers-to-education-around-the-world-2/
4 ovacool, B. K., & Ryan, S. E. (2016). The geography of energy and education. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 58, 107–123.
6 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Transforming education: the power of ICT policies (Paris: UNESCO, 2011)
7 https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/issue-briefs/improve-learning/curriculum-and-materials/information-and-communication-technology-ict
8 https://www.act.org/content/dam/act/unsecured/documents/R1698-digital-divide-2018-08.pdf
9 Education Data Release: One in Every Five Children, Adolescents and Youth is Out of School. UNESCO Institute for Statistics
10 http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/files/documents/sdg4-digest-data-nurture-learning-exec-summary-2018-en.pdf
11 https://educateachild.org/explore/barriers-to-education
12 https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/economy/reports/2018/02/22/447115/better-training-better-jobs/
13 Electricity and education, UNDESA. 2014
14 Sovacool, B. K., & Ryan, S. E. (2016). The geography of energy and education. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 58, 107–123. 15 World Bank Development Indicators Database, December 2014
16 Electricity and education, UNDESA. 2014
17 Raising Clean Hands: Advancing Learning, Health and Participation through WASH in schools. 2010. https://www.unicef.org/media/files/raisingcleanhands_2010.pdf
18 Water Hauling and Girls’ School Attendance: Some New Evidence from Ghana. Céline Nauges & Jon Strand. World Bank. 2013.
19 Raising Clean Hands: Advancing Learning, Health and Participation through WASH in schools. 2010
20 Kempton MJ, Ettinger U, Foster R, Williams SCR, Calvert GA, Hampshire A, et al. Dehydration affects brain structure and function in healthy adolescents. Human Brain Mapping. 2011;32:71–79
21 Edmonds CJ, Jeffes B. Does having a drink help you think? Appetite. 2009;53:469–472
22 Drinking Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Schools. Global Baseline Report 2018. WHO
23 UNICEF, Advancing WASH in Schools Monitoring, 2015.

SDG 3 seeks to promote health and well-being for all. While the overall health of the world’s population has improved, many population groups have been left behind. Many diseases remain widespread and deadly, yet are preventable with access to appropriate healthcare. Unsafe drinking water, polluted air, and poor housing conditions are all linked with negative health impacts, and the goal calls for change in each of these areas. Progress in SDG 3 means stronger, more productive individuals and communities, and fulfills the basic requirement of good health for the successful pursuit many other SDGs. SDG 3 is further refined by targets that can be more readily translated into actions. These targets highlight the interconnected nature of the goals: For example, strategies to support Good Health and Well-Being also promote progress toward SDG 5 (Gender Equality) and SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation). Below are a series of synergies that can come from providing access to products, services and systems that address Good Health and Well-Being.

Access to Healthcare Services

Expanding access to healthcare services is fundamental to improving health and wellbeing. In many parts of the world, lack of access to essential care means high numbers of preventable deaths. More than 300,000 women died from maternity-related causes in 2015, mainly in regions where antenatal care is less common and where most women do not receive professional assistance during birth.1 Vaccine and medicine access worldwide is also insufficient for diseases like HIV, pneumonia, and measles, allowing outbreaks to persist.2,3 Even where quality health services are available, affordability often proves to be the greatest barrier; low-income individuals in the US are less likely to have health insurance or to pursue primary or specialty care,4 facing higher rates of morbidity and mortality as a consequence.5 Recent action to bring health care to more people has made great strides in each of these areas, but more work remains to be done.

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Access to Clean Water

Safe drinking water is fundamental for a healthy life, yet 2 billion people still use a drinking source contaminated by human waste, and over 800 million lack access to a basic drinkingwater source.6 Contaminated water spreads diseases like typhoid, cholera, and diarrhea, which kills more than 2,000 children each day — a greater toll than AIDS, malaria, and measles combined.7 Even where improved water systems exist, contaminants like lead and nitrates can elevate the risks of blood poisoning and cancer.8,9 Few cases better illustrate the fundamental link between clean water and health than the recent water crisis in Flint, Michigan; in the 18 months following a switch in water source for Flint residents, 12 people died and 87 fell ill from the unsafe water.10 Fortunately, solutions are possible and impactful: A $1 intervention to provide clean water access creates $25.50 of benefits on average as people spend less time and money dealing with illness, and as deaths from unsafe water are prevented.11

Access to Clean Air

The health effects of poor air quality are a growing concern as pollution levels increase globally, contributing to one out of every nine deaths12 and creating unhealthy air conditions for 95% of the world’s population.13 The use of coal and fossil fuels releases a large amount of pollutants, including particulate matter and black carbon, which causes respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.14 Indoors, nearly 40% of the population still relies on the burning of biomass, coal, and charcoal for heating and cooking, making air inside the home unsafe to breathe.15 Replacing exposure to unsafe air with access to clean air is an urgent need to enable healthy and full lives for all.

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Access to Adequate Housing and Living Conditions

Access to affordable and quality housing is foundational for healthy lives. Individuals who experience homelessness or housing instability suffer negative mental health impacts and have more difficulty adhering to health treatment.16 Poor housing conditions also have adverse effects on well-being, often linked to respiratory problems when mold or hazardous materials are present.17 Problems such as these combine with lack of sanitation and clean water for the nearly 1 billion people living in substandard housing conditions in the southern hemisphere.18 Fortunately, efforts targeting better access to stable and adequate housing have been shown to improve health outcomes for many residents.19

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SDG 3: References

1 World Health Statistics 2018: Monitoring health for the SDGs, World Health Organization (WHO)
2 Ibid
3 Progress and challenges with achieving universal immunization coverage: 2016 estimates of immunization coverage. WHO/UNICEF Estimates of National Immunization Coverage (Data as of July 2017). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017
4 Dhruv Khullar Dave A. Chokshi. 2018. Health, Income, & Poverty: Where We Are & What Could Help. Health Policy Brief. Health Affairs
5 Andersen, R. et al. 2002. Access to Medical Care for Low-Income Persons: How Do Communities Make a Difference? Medical Care Research and Review
6 Progress on drinking-water, sanitation, and hygiene, 2017. WHO
7 Diarrhea: Common Illness, Global Killer. CDC
8 Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children Associated with the Flint Drinking Water Crisis: A Spatial Analysis of Risk and Public Health Response. Hanna-Attisha M, LaChance J, Sadler RC, Champney Schnepp A. Am J Public Health. 2016; 106(2):283-90
9 Environmental justice and drinking water quality: are there socioeconomic disparities in nitrate levels in U.S. drinking water? Laurel A. Schaider, Lucien Swetschinski, Christopher Campbell, and Ruthann A. Rudel. Environmental Health. 2019
10 Flint Water Crisis: Everything You Need to Know. NRDC. 2018
11 Diarrhea: Common Illness, Global Killer. CDC
12 Ambient air pollution: A global assessment of exposure and burden of disease. 2016. WHO
13 State of Global Air. 2018. Health Effects Institute
14 https://www.epa.gov/air-research/black-carbon-research
15 Access to Modern Energy: Assessment and Outlook for Developing and Emerging Regions. 2012. IIASA.
16 Taylor, Lauren. Housing And Health: An Overview of the Literature. Health Affairs Health Policy Briefs. June 2018
17 Butler, Stuart and Marcella Cabello. Housing as a Hub for Health, Community Services, and Upward Mobility. Brookings Institute. March 2018
18 Slum Almanac 2015/2016. Tracking Improvement in the Lives of Slum Dwellers. Participatory Slum Upgrading Programme. UN Habitat
19 Taylor, Lauren. Housing And Health: An Overview of the Literature. Health Affairs Health Policy Briefs. June 2018.